Ibn ‘Umar reported that:
“Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله علیه وسلم) made it obligatory to give Zakaat-ul-Fitr as a saa’  of dates or a saa’ of barley, upon the slave and the free person, the male and the female, and the young and the old amongst the Muslims. And he (صلى الله علیه وسلم) commanded that it be given before the people set out for the prayer.”  [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
The Sunnah is that it should be given in food, as was done during the time of the Prophet. Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree said:
“During the time of the Prophet, we used to give a saa’ of food  on the day of the ‘Eed.”
Then he (Abu Saeed) said:
“Our food used to be: barley, raisins, dried curds  and dates.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
About The 'Eid Prayer:
“And so that you may complete the (prescribed) time (for fasting) and so that you may glorify Allaah (by saying Allaahu Akbar), for having guided you, so that you may be grateful.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185]
So the Muslims go out to the musallaa (place of prayer) – an empty land – saying the takbeer (Allaahu Akbar).  Then they pray two rak’aat behind the Imaam, saying the takbeer (Allaahu
Akbar) seven times in the first rak’ah, and five times in the second rak’ah, reciting the Qur’aan out loud in both rak’aat. Then the Imaam gives one khutbah (sermon) after which the people disperse. And it is from the Sunnah to return home using a different route than the one taken when coming to the musallaa (place of prayer). 
It is recommended for the one who fasts the month of Ramadaan to (also) fast six days in (the month of) Shawaal. The Prophet (صلى الله علیه وسلم) said:
“Whoever fasts the month of Ramadaan and follows it up with six days in Shawaal, it is as if he has fasted the whole year.” [Reported by Muslim]
It is not a condition that the days be fasted consecutively.
Some Important Notes:
There is nothing authentically reported concerning fasting on the first day of (the month of) Rajab or the twenty-seventh day of Rajab.
There is nothing authentically reported concerning fasting in the middle of Sha’baan.
Also, the ahaadeeth reported on the excellence of fasting in the sacred months are weak, except for the month of Muharram, for there is an authentic hadeeth about it. Look for it in the last section of this book.
From the great wrongs committed in Ramadaan is that many people fast in Ramadaan, but do not pray. Their example is like that of a people who build a palace but destroy its surroundings.
From the great wrongs also is that: Some people observe the prayer in Ramadaan, but then leave off praying after the month comes to an end. So it is as if the Lord of Ramadaan is not the Lord of Shawaal or any of the other months. May Allaah be far removed from false gods and partners.
 A saa' consists of four amdaad (plural for mudd). A mudd is a handful using two hands cupped together of an average-sized man. It is better for you to measure the weight of the saa' that you will take to distribute for Zakaat-ul-Fitr by yourself. This is to be done by scooping four handfuls with both hands and then weighing it. It is approximately around two kilograms from the allotted portion give or take a little. But giving a little more out of precaution is better.
 He means by this the 'Eed Prayer. However, it is permissible to entrust it with the committee that is in charge of distributing the Zakaat, a day or two before the Day of 'Eed.
 It is the Sunnah to give any food that the people of that land grow. Its range is that a saa' is to be given by every individual in the family. A majority of the scholars hold that it is not permissible to give it in the form of its monetary worth in cash, but rather it must be given in food as is stated in the Sunnah. This is the opinion that is in conformity with the evidences, so adhere to it! And beware of views and opinions, even if people beautify them. This does not mean that we cannot give charity in cash to the poor, for we can – except for Sadaqat-ul-Fitr, for this is a matter of worship. And there is wisdom in Allaah's commands, which our limited minds cannot comprehend.
 This is evaporated milk, which is well known in the Hijaaz area and Najd, and which resembles kishk in our land (of Egypt).
 The most correct manner of saying the takbeer is: Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar Kabeeran.
 It is legislated on this day for the women to go out so that they may witness the 'Eed Prayer, even the menstruating women. However, they (the menstruating women) must stay away from the musallaa (place of prayer) and witness the (acts of) good and the invitation of the Muslims.